I.  Case Law

City of Seattle v. Erickson, 188 Wash. 2d 721 (Wash. 2017)

Woods v. City of Greensboro855 F.3d 639 (4th Cir. 2017)

Pena-Rodriguez v. Colorado137 S. Ct. 855 (2017)

Buck v. Davis137 S. Ct. 759 (2017)

State v. ShermanNo. 97840., 2012 WL 3765041 (Ohio Ct. App. Aug. 30, 2012)

Kimble v. Wisconsin Dep’t of Workforce Dev., 690 F. Supp. 2d 765 (E.D. Wis. 2010)

Prue v. Univ. of Wash.No. C07-1859RSL, 2009 WL 302272, 2009 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 13085 (W.D. Wash. Feb. 5, 2009)

State v. Martin, 773 N.W.2d 89 (Minn. 2009)

Williams v. Staples , Inc.372 F.3d 662, 665 (4th Cir. 2004)

Chin v Runnels, 343 F Supp. 2d 891 (N.D. Cal 2004)

State v. Saintcalle178 Wash. 2d 34 (2013)

McCleskey v. Kemp481 U.S. 279 (1987)

II.  Criminal Justice System/Jury Selection

“A New Approach to Voir Dire on Racial Bias” – 5 UC Irvine L. Rev. 843, Nov. 2015

Race Gap: Crime vs. Punishment – by Jonathan D. Glater, The New York Times (October 7, 2007)

Unraveling the Gordian Knot of Implicit Bias in Jury Selection: The Problems of Judge-Dominated Voir Dire, the Failed Promise of Batson, and Proposed Solutions – by Judge Mark W. Bennett, Harvard Law & Policy Review (February 2010)

III.  Courtroom/Judicial Decision Making/Mediation

Judging Implicit Bias: A National Empirical Study of Judicial Stereotypes – Justin D. Levinson, Mark W. Bennett, and Koichi Hioki, Florida Law Review

Implicit Bias and the Illusion of Mediator Neutrality – By Carol Izumi, 34 Wash. U. J. L. & Pol’y 71 (2010)

Implicit Bias in the Courtroom – by Jerry Kang, Judge Mark Bennett, Devon Carbado, Pam Casey, Nilanjana Dasgupta, David Faigman, Rachel Godsil, Anthony G. Greenwald, Justin Levinson, Jennifer Mnookin; UCLA Law Review (2012)

“Unconventional Methods for a Traditional Setting: The Use of Virtual Reality to Reduce Implicit Racial Bias in the Courtroom.” – 15 University of New Hampshire L. Rev. 117, November 2016.

Implicit Bias in Judicial Decision Making How It Affects Judgment and What Judges Can Do About It (Chapter 5: American Bar Association, Enhancing Justice (2017); Cornell Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17-16)

Judicial Bias in Sex Discrimination Cases: Empirical Analysis – Workplace Prof Blog, May 11, 2017

Implicit Racial Bias in Public Defender Triage – L. Song Richardson & Phillip Atiba Goff, 122 Yale L.J. 2626 (2013)

iV.  Intent vs Disparate Impact

Discriminatory Intent Reconsidered: Folk Concepts of Intentionality and Equal Protection Jurisprudence – by Julia Kobick, Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review (2010)

The Id, the Ego, and Equal Protection in the 21st Century: Building upon Charles Lawrence’s Vision to Mount a Contemporary Challenge to the Intent Doctrine – by Eva Paterson, Kimberly Thomas Rapp, Sara Jackson; Connecticut Law Review (2008)

The Id, the Ego, and Equal Protection: Reckoning with Unconscious Racism – by Charles R. Lawrence III, Stanford Law Review (January 1987)