A Decade of System Justification Theory: Accumulated Evidence of Conscious and Unconscious Bolstering of the Status Quo—by John T. Jost, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Brian A. Nosek, Political Psychology (2004)

A Portrait of Jewish Americans: Findings from a Pew Research Center Survey of U.S. Jews—by the Pew Research Center (2013)

American = White?—by Thierry Devos, Mahzarin R. Banaji, Personality & Social Psychology (2005)

Anti-Semitic Attitudes in Europe: A Comparative Perspective—by Werner Bergmann, Journal of Social Issues (2008)

Are Emily and Greg More Employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A Field Experiment on Labor Market Discrimination—by See Marianne Bertrand & Sendhil Mullainathan, American Economic Review (2004)

Asian Americans Under the Influence of “Japan Bashing”—by Masako Iino, Mid-America American Studies Association (1994)

Attitudes Toward Asian Americans: Theory and Measurement—by Colin Ho &  Jay W. Jackson, Applied Soc. Psychol (2001).

Cognition, Affect, and Behavior in the Prediction of Group Attitudes—by Linda A. Jackson et al., Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin (1996).

Compliments Will Get You Nowhere: Benign Stereotypes, Prejudice and Anti-Semitism—by  Thomas C. Wilson, The Sociological Quarterly (1996)

Culpable Causation—by Mark D. Alicke, Personality & Social Psychology (1992)

Ethnic Dislikes and Stereotypes: A Laboratory Study—by Gregory Razran, Journal of Abnormal Psychology (1950).

Discrimination and the Implicit Association Test—by Laurie A. Rudman & Richard D. Ashmore, Group Processes & Intergroup Relations (2007)

Fair Measures: A Behavioral Realist Revision of “Affirmative Action”—by  Jerry Kang & Mahzarin R. Banaji, California Law Review (2006)

“Fairness or Bias?: A Symposium on Racial and Ethnic Composition and Attitudes in the Judiciary”—by Ming W. Chin, Asian Law Journal (1997)

Gender Differences in Automatic In-Group Bias: Why Do Women Like Women More Than Men Like Men?—by Laurie A. Rudman & Stephanie A. Goodwin, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (2004)

Ignoring the Sexualization of Race: Heteronormativity, Critical Race Theory and Anti-Racist Politics—by Darren Lenard Hutchinson,  Buffalo Law Review (1999)

Implicit Ageism—by Becca R. Levy & Mahzarin R. Banaji, in Ageism: Stereotyping And Prejudice Against Older Persons (Todd D. Nelson ed., 2002)

Implicit Attitudes Toward Arab-Muslims and the Moderating Effects of Social Information—by Jaihyun Park et al.,  Basic & Applied Social Psychology (2007)

Implicit Bias Among Physicians and Its Prediction of Thrombolysis Decisions for Black and White Patients—by Alexander R. Green et al.,  The Journal of General Internal Medicine (2007)

Implicit Bias and Contact: The Role of Interethnic Friendships—by Christopher L. Aberson et al., Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (2004)

Automatic Associations and Discrimination in Hiring: Real World Evidence—by Dan-Olof Rooth, Labour Economics, (2010)
Can’t Find

Implicit Gender Bias in the Legal Profession: An Empirical Study—by Justin D. Levinson & Danielle Young,  Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy (2010)

Implicit Gender Stereotyping in Judgments of Fame—by  Mahzarin R. Banaji & Anthony G. Greenwald,  Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (1995)

Intention, Intentional Action and Moral Considerations—by Joshua Knobe, Analysis (2004)

Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test—by Anthony G. Greenwald et al., Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (1998).

Measuring the Automatic Components of Prejudice: Flexibility and Generality of the Implicit Association Test—by Laurie A. Rudman et al., Social Cognition (1999)

Model Minority, Yellow Peril: Functions of “Foreignness” in the Construction of Asian American Legal Identity—by Natsu Taylor Saito, Asian Law Journal (1997)

National Demographic Survey of American Jewish College Students 2014: Anti-Semitism Report—by Barry A. Kosmin & Ariela Keysar, Trinity College Connecticut & The Louis D Brandeis Center (2015)
Can’t Find

Personal Religious Orientation and Prejudice—by Gordon W. Allport & J. Michael Ross, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (1967)

Pervasiveness and Correlates of Implicit Attitudes and Stereotypes—by Brian A. Nosek et al., European Review of Personality & Social Psychology (2007)

Property Law: Implicit Bias and the Resilience of Spatial Colorlines—by Michelle Wilde Anderson & Victoria C. Plant, in Implicit Racial Bias Across The Law (2012)

Racial Stereotypes of One Hundred College Students—by Daniel Katz & Kenneth Braly,  Abnormal & Social Psychology (1933)

Racial Violence Against Asian Americans—by Jerry Kang, Harvard Law Review (1993)

Stereotyping Asian Americans: The Dialectic of the Model Minority and the Yellow Peril—by Yuko Kawai, Howard Journal of Communications (2005)

Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Discrimination—by Susan T. Fiske, in Handbook Of Social Psychology  (Daniel T. Gilbert, Susan T. Fiske & Gardener Lindzey eds., 1998)

Systemic Implicit Bias—by Justin D. Levinson & Robert J. Smith, Yale Law Journal (2017)

The Call for and Role of Asian Lawyers in the Deep South—by Jou-Chi Ho, Seattle Journal of Social Justice (2014)

The Jewish Law Firm: Past and Present—by Eli Wald, in Jews And The Law (Ari Mermelstein et al. eds., 2014).

The Trouble of Thinking: Activation and Application of Stereotypic Beliefs—by Daniel T. Gilbert, J. Gregory Hixon, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1991)

Too Smart for His Own Good? The Devolution of a “Model” Asian American Student—by Nary Kim,  Asian American Law Journal (2013)

Understanding and Using the Implicit Association Test: I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm—by Anthony G. Greenwald et al., Personality & Social Psychology (2003).

Voices of America: Accent, Antidiscrimination Law, and a Jurisprudence for the Last Reconstruction—by Mari J. Matsuda, Yale Law Journal (1991).



Implicit Bias in the Age of Trump





De-bias Techniques

On the Malleability of Automatic Attitudes: Combating Automatic Prejudice with Images of Admired and Disliked Individuals—by Nilanjana Dasgupta & Anthony G. Greenwald,  Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (2001)

Misperceptions based on Race-Threat Level/Dating


Not Yet Human: Implicit Knowledge, Historical Dehumanization, and Contemporary Consequences—by Phillip Atiba Goff et al., Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (2008)
Can’t Find

Prejudice and Perception: The Role of Automatic and Controlled Processes in Misperceiving a Weapon—by B. Keith Payne  Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (2001)

Seeing Black: Race, Crime, and Visual Processing—by Jennifer L. Eberhardt et al., Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (2004)

Stereotypes and Prejudice: Their Automatic and Controlled Components—by Patricia G. Devine, Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (1989)

The Influence of Stereotypes on Decisions to Shoot—by Joshua Correll et al., European Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (2007)

The Police Officer’s Dilemma: Using Ethnicity to Disambiguate Potentially Threatening Individuals—by Joshua Correll et al., Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (2002)

The World Is Not Black and White: Racial Bias in the Decision to Shoot in a Multiethnic Context—by Melody S. Sadler et al., Journal of Social Issues (2012)





School Discipline




  1. Courtroom/Judicial Decision Making/Mediation

A “Holocaust in Slow Motion?” America’s Mass Incarceration and the Role of Discretion—by Mark Osler & Mark W. Bennett, DePaul Journal of Social Justice (2014)

Mark W. Bennett, A Slow Motion Lynching? The War on Drugs, Mass Incarceration, Doing Kimbrough Justice, and a Response to Two Third Circuit Judges, Rutgers Law Review (2014)

Are Ideal Litigators White? Measuring the Myth of Colorblindness—by Jerry Kang et al., Journal of Empirical Legal Studies (2010)

Asymmetry as Fairness: Reversing a Peremptory Trend—by Anna Roberts, Washington University Law Review (2015).

Justin D. Levinson & Kaiping Peng, Different Torts for Different Cohorts: A Cultural Psychological Critique of Tort Law’s Actual Cause and Foreseeability Inquiries, Southern California Interdisciplinary Law Journal (2004).

When Neurogenetics Hurts: Examining the Use of Neuroscience and Genetic Evidence in Sentencing Decisions Through Implicit Bias—by John Pyun, California Law Review (2015)

Forgotten Racial Equality: Implicit Bias, Decisionmaking, and Misremembering—by Justin D. Levinson, Duke Law Journal (2007)

Implicit Bias in the Courtroom—by Jerry Kang et al., UCLA Law Review (2012)

Implicit Racial Bias in Public Defender Triage—by L. Song Richardson & Philip Atiba Goff, Yale Law Journal (2013)

Judging Federal White-Collar Fraud Sentencing: An Empirical Study Revealing the Need for Further Reform—by Mark W. Bennett, Justin D. Levinson & Koichi Hioki, Iowa Law Review (2017)

Judicial Discretion in Common Law Courts– by Richard B. Spindle, Washington & Lee Law Review (1947)

Jurisprudence of the New Anti-Semitism– by Kenneth L. Marcus, Wake Forest Law Review (2009)

Peremptory Challenges Based on Religious Affiliation: Are They Constitutional?—by Daniel M. Hinkle,  Buffalo Criminal Law Review (2005)

Race, Death, and the Complicitous Mind—by  Justin D. Levinson, DePaul Law Review (2009)

Racial Stereotyping of Asians and Asian Americans and Its Effect on Criminal Justice: A Reflection on the Wayne Lo Case—by Rhoda J. Yen, Asian Law Journal (2000)

Stereotypes and Prejudice: Their Automatic and Controlled Components—by Patricia G. Devine, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology (1989)

The Impact of Implicit Racial Bias on the Exercise of Prosecutorial Discretion—by Robert J. Smith & Justin D. Levinson, Seattle University Law Review (2012)



…..b. Criminal Justice System/Jury Selection

Unraveling the Gordian Knot of Implicit Bias in Jury Selection: The Problems of Judge-Dominated Voir Dire, the Failed Promise of Batson, and Proposed Solutions—by Mark W. Bennett,  Harvard Law & Policy Review (2010)
Can’t Find

Devaluing Death: An Empirical Study of Implicit Racial Bias on Jury-Eligible Citizens in Six Death Penalty States—by Justin D. Levinson et al.,  N.Y.U. Law Review (2014)

Different Shades of Bias: Skin Tone, Implicit Racial Bias, and Judgments of Ambiguous Evidence—by Justin D. Levinson & Danielle Young, West Virginia Law Review (2010)

Does Unconscious Racial Bias Affect Trial Judges?—by Jeffrey J. Rachlinski et al., Notre Dame Law Review (2009)

Guilty by Implicit Racial Bias: The Guilty/Not Guilty Implicit Association Test—by Justin D. Levinson et al.,  Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, (2010)

Implicit Racial Attitudes of Death Penalty Lawyers—by Theodore Eisenberg & Sheri Lynn Johnson, DePaul Law Review (2004)

Looking Deathworthy: Perceived Stereotypicality of Black Defendants Predicts Capital-Sentencing Outcomes—by  Jennifer L. Eberhardt et al., Psychological Science (2006)

Mandatory Sentencing and Racial Disparity: Assessing the Role of Prosecutors and the Effects of Booker—by Sonja B. Starr & M. Marit Rehavi, Yale Law Journal (2013)

Punishing the ‘Model Minority’: Asian-American Criminal Sentencing Outcomes in Federal District Courts—by  Johnson & Sara Betsinger, Criminology (2009)

Racial Disparities in Incarceration Increase Acceptance of Punitive Policies—by Rebecca C. Hetey & Jennifer L. Eberhardt,  Psychological Science (2014)

Racial Disparity in Federal Criminal Charging and Its Sentencing Consequences—by Sonja B. Starr & M. Marit Rehavi,  University of Michigan Law & Economics Working Paper Series (2012).
Can’t Find.


…..c. Intent vs Disparate Impact


Case Law





Mentally Misguided: How State of Mind Inquiries Ignore Psychological Reality and Overlook Cultural Differences—by Justin D. Levinson, Howard Law Journal (2005)



Other Related Data or Information

Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Groups—by Susan Aud et al., U.S. Department Of Education, National Center For Education Statistics (2010)

The Roots of The Widening Racial Wealth Gap: Explaining The Black-White Economic Divide—by Thomas Shapiro et al., Institute On Assets & Social Policy (2013)

Residential Vacancies And Homeownership In The Second Quarter 2016—by the U.S. Census Bureau News (2016)