This list of resources is a work in progress. As the National Implicit Bias Network grows, we expect to provide a more comprehensive list. We ask Network members to share with us your future research and writings so that we can add those to this collection. 

In addition to the resources listed below, we have a cloud folder of numerous other documents and files. You can download the entire contents of the web folder by clicking on the Download button on the upper left section of your screen.

Resource Categories

1. General
2. Implicit Bias in the Age of Trump
3. De-bias Techniques
4. Misperceptions based on Race-Threat Level/Dating
5. School Discipline
6. Law
…..a. Courtroom/Judicial Decision Making/Mediation
…..b. Criminal Justice System/Jury Selection
…..c. Intent vs Disparate Impact
7. Case Law
8. Health
9. Other Related Data or Information

1. General

Intentional Blindness – by Ian F. Haney-López, NYU Law Review (2012)

Tests of trainee doctors find signs of race bias in care – by Stephen Smith, Boston Globe (July 20, 2007)

The Making and Unmaking of Whiteness – by Birgit Brander Rasmussen, Duke University Press (2001)

Unconscious Racism – by David Kairysm, Temple Law Review (September 2011)

“Systematic Implicit Bias” – 126 Yale Law Journal Forum 406 (January 31, 2017)

Is This How Discrimination Ends? A New Approach to Implicit Bias – Jessica Nordell, The Atlantic, May 7, 2017

2. Implicit Bias in the Age of Trump

“Can the Science of Lying Explain Trump’s Support?” – by Jeremy Adam Smith, UC Berkeley Greater Good Science Center

[new] “White fear of demographic change is a powerful psychological force” by Brian Resnick, Vox – cites Network member Prof. Jennifer Richeson

[new] “Could America Become Mississippi?” by Jamelle Bouie, Slate – cites Network member Prof. Jennifer Richeson

3. De-bias Techniques

How I Learned to Treat My Bias – by Manoj Jain, The Washington Post (April 15, 2007)

4. Misperceptions based on Race-Threat Level/Dating

Skin Color Plays a Role in Craigslist Transactions, Study Says – by Amar Toor, (June 3, 2010)

Sticks and Stones, the Words That Hurt: Entrenched Stereotypes Eight Years After 9/11 – by Sahar F. Aziz, New York City Law Review (Winter 2009)

Study: People See Black Men as Larger, More Threatening Than Same-Sized White Men – American Psychological Association

The Black Image in the White Mind: Media and Race in America – Robert M. Entman, Andrew Rojecki, University of Chicago Press (2001)

Black Boys Viewed as Older, Less Innocent Than Whites, Research Finds – Phillip Atiba Goff, PhD, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

5. School Discipline

Reframing School Discipline: A Strategic Communications Playbook – by The Frameworks Institute

Unconscious Bias in the Classroom: Evidence and Opportunities – A Google, Inc. report by Dee, T., & Gershenson, S. (2017)

With Google’s help, Prof. Jason Okonofua tackles ‘black troublemaker’ school stereotype – Berkeley News (April 26, 2017)

6a. Law – Courtroom/Judicial Decision Making/Mediation

Judging Implicit Bias: A National Empirical Study of Judicial Stereotypes – Justin D. Levinson, Mark W. Bennett, and Koichi Hioki, Florida Law Review

Implicit Bias and the Illusion of Mediator Neutrality – By Carol Izumi, 34 Wash. U. J. L. & Pol’y 71 (2010)

Implicit Bias in the Courtroom – by Jerry Kang, Judge Mark Bennett, Devon Carbado, Pam Casey, Nilanjana Dasgupta, David Faigman, Rachel Godsil, Anthony G. Greenwald, Justin Levinson, Jennifer Mnookin; UCLA Law Review (2012)

“Unconventional Methods for a Traditional Setting: The Use of Virtual Reality to Reduce Implicit Racial Bias in the Courtroom.” – 15 University of New Hampshire L. Rev. 117, November 2016.

Implicit Bias in Judicial Decision Making How It Affects Judgment and What Judges Can Do About It (Chapter 5: American Bar Association, Enhancing Justice (2017); Cornell Legal Studies Research Paper No. 17-16)

Judicial Bias in Sex Discrimination Cases: Empirical Analysis – Workplace Prof Blog, May 11, 2017

Implicit Racial Bias in Public Defender Triage – L. Song Richardson & Phillip Atiba Goff, 122 Yale L.J. 2626 (2013).

6b. Law – Criminal Justice System/Jury Selection

“A New Approach to Voir Dire on Racial Bias” – 5 UC Irvine L. Rev. 843, Nov. 2015

Race Gap: Crime vs. Punishment – by Jonathan D. Glater, The New York Times (October 7, 2007)

Unraveling the Gordian Knot of Implicit Bias in Jury Selection: The Problems of Judge-Dominated Voir Dire, the Failed Promise of Batson, and Proposed Solutions – by Judge Mark W. Bennett, Harvard Law & Policy Review (February 2010)

6c. Law – Intent vs Disparate Impact

Discriminatory Intent Reconsidered: Folk Concepts of Intentionality and Equal Protection Jurisprudence – by Julia Kobick, Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review (2010)

The Id, the Ego, and Equal Protection in the 21st Century: Building upon Charles Lawrence’s Vision to Mount a Contemporary Challenge to the Intent Doctrine – by Eva Paterson, Kimberly Thomas Rapp, Sara Jackson; Connecticut Law Review (2008)

The Id, the Ego, and Equal Protection: Reckoning with Unconscious Racism – by Charles R. Lawrence III, Stanford Law Review (January 1987)

7. Case Law

City of Seattle v. Erickson – 188 Wash. 2d 721 (2017)

Michael Woods v. City of Greensboro (4th Cir. 2017)

Pena-Rodriguez v. Colorado – 137 S. Ct. 855 (March 6, 2017)

Buck v. Davis – 137 S. Ct. 759 (Feb. 22, 2017)

State v. Sherman – 2012 WL 3765041

Kimble v. Wisconsin Dept. of Workforce Development – 690 F.Supp.2d 765, 776 (E.D.Wis. 2010)

Prue v. University of Washington – W.D. Wash. Feb. 5, 2009

State v. Martin – 773 N.W.2d 89 (2009)

Williams v. Staples , Inc. – 372 F.3d 662, 665 (4th Cir. 2004)

Chin v Runnels – 343 F Supp 2d 891 (N.D. Cal 2004)

Washington v. Saintcalle – Court asserted that the Batson procedures for challenging race discrimination in jury selection were not “robust enough,” since “a growing body of evidence shows that racial discrimination remains rampant in jury selection.”

McCleskey v. Kemp – 481 U.S. 279 (1987)

8. Health

The Invisible Bias Epidemic: Addressing Racial Disparities in Medical Treatment – By Martin Levine, Nonprofit Quarterly (April 14, 2017)

Implicit Bias among Physicians and its Prediction of Thrombolysis Decisions for Black and White Patients – By Alexander R. Green, MD, MPH, Dana R. Carney, PhD, Daniel J. Pallin, MD, MPH, Long H. Ngo, PhD, Kristal L. Raymond, MPH, Lisa I. Iezzoni, MD, MSc, and Mahzarin R. Banaji, PhD; Journal of General Internal Medicine, September 2007, Volume 22, Issue 9, pp 1231–1238

9. Other Related Data

Cable News Morning Shows Drastically Skew White and Male Latino, Black, Asian-American And Middle Eastern Voices Are Critically Underrepresented, And Women Are Only A Quarter Of The Guests On Morning Shows – A Media Matters analysis of morning shows on cable news networks from January 1 to March 31 found that white men make up an overwhelming percentage of guest appearances on CNN, Fox News, and MSNBC’s morning shows. The study found that black, Latino, Asian-American and Middle Eastern voices are critically underrepresented, and women make up only a quarter of guest appearances.

Given a test to apply for a job? Watch out if you are not a white man, by Will Evans, Center for Investigative Reporting, May 23, 2017 – There’s a hidden form of discrimination blocking job seekers across the country. It’s the misuse of employment tests – which measure reading, math and other cognitive skills – that can unfairly disadvantage minorities and women without the employers or the job applicants even realizing it.